For beams exceeding the depth of 750 mm Side Face Reinforcement is provided **to ensure lateral stability as well as confinement to increase the ductility of the beam member**.

## What is face reinforcement?

**Weld reinforcement on the side of the joint from which welding was done**.

## What is a facial beam?

**they have a big smile on their face because they are happy, pleased, or proud about something**. […] [written] See full entry.

## What are bars in beams?

**within the RCC beam**. Beam has a property to support pressure and strain, while bars can continue pressure (intended for taking pressure). The Rods/Bars are any part exposed to the hub (Tensile/Compressive yet no Transverse/Torsional loads) Loads as it were.

## What is Side bar in beam?

**To control cracking in beams with a total depth ≥ 1000 mm**, side bars are provided in the side faces of the beam as per BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 Section 7.3. 3(3).

## What is skin rod?

Skin reinforcement is also known as **side facing reinforcement** which is provided in a beam when the depth of the beam exceeds 750mm, or when there exists torsion in the beam, these reinforcement is provided for beams having depths greater than 450mm.

## How does vertical stirrups help in carrying shear?

Vertical Stirrups

**The free ends of the stirrups are anchored in the compression zone of the beam to the anchor bars (hanger bar) or the compressive reinforcement**. Depending upon the magnitude of the shear force to be resisted the vertical stirrups may be one legged, two legged, four legged and so on as shown in Fig.

## What is spacer bar?

A spacer bar, known as a profile, is **the continuous hollow frame which separates the two glass panes in a double glazing window**. The spacer bar is bonded to the glass panes via a primary and secondary seal, creating an airtight cavity which is filled with air or gas.

## How can you tell one-way and two-way slab?

**If the ratio of long side / short side > 2 it is considered as one-way slab, and if longer side to shorter side ratio < 2 then it is considered as a two-way slab**.

## What is the difference between one-way slab and two-way slab?

**In a one-way slab, the load is carried in one direction perpendicular to the supporting beam.** **In a two-way slab, the load is carried in both directions**. In a one-way slab, bending is only in one direction i.e. in a shorter span. In a two-way slab, bending is in both directions.

## How do you give reinforcement in footing?

…

- Concrete cover of Reinforcements. …
- Minimum reinforcement and bar diameter. …
- Reinforcement Distribution in Footing. …
- Dowel reinforcement. …
- Lap splice.

…

- Concrete cover of Reinforcements. …
- Minimum reinforcement and bar diameter. …
- Reinforcement Distribution in Footing. …
- Dowel reinforcement. …
- Lap splice.

## What is nominal cover in concrete?

The nominal cover is **the distance between the exposed concrete surface to nearest reinforcement bar** ( it may be any bar main bar, longitudinal bar and even links or stirrups). The nominal cover should not be less than the diameter of the bar.

## What is deep beam?

Deep beam is **a beam having large depth/thickness ratio and shear span depth ratio less than 2.5for concentrated load and less than 5.0 for distributed load**. Because the geometry of deep beams, their behavior is different with slender beam or intermediate beam.

## What happens when concrete is over reinforced?

If over-reinforced beam is designed and loaded to full capacity then **the steel in tension zone will not yield much before the concrete reaches its ultimate strain of 0.0035**. This due to little yielding of steel the deflection and cracking of beam does not occur and does not give enough warning prior to failure.

## How can you tell one way and two way slab?

**If the ratio of long side / short side > 2 it is considered as one-way slab, and if longer side to shorter side ratio < 2 then it is considered as a two-way slab**.

## What are plastic spacers used for?

Spacers **ensure the concrete cover before and during concreting**. In the case of simple interior components, plastic spacers are a cost-effective alternative to the tried and tested fibre-reinforced concrete spacers and to spacers made of cast concrete.

## Why do we put chair in slab?

**To maintain the required gap between the upper & lower reinforcement cage** in footings, slabs, raft foundations, etc. 2. To maintain the clear cover for the reinforcement at the time of concrete vibration.

## What is difference between Main Bar and distribution bar?

Main Reinforcement Bars are used to transfer the bending moment developed at the bottom of the slab. Distribution Bars are used to hold the slabs on either way and to resist the cracks and shear stress developed at the top.

## Why do we use steel in concrete?

The reinforcing steel—rods, bars, or mesh—**absorbs the tensile, shear, and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure**. Plain concrete does not easily withstand tensile and shear stresses caused by wind, earthquakes, vibrations, and other forces and is therefore unsuitable in most structural applications.

## How do I create a RCC footing?

**Column footing design – with RCC column design pdf**

- Step-1 Load calculation.
- Step-2 Area of footing.
- Step-3 Depth of footing by one-way shear criterion.
- Shear force due to factored soil pressure at critical section.
- Depth of footing by two way shear.
- Step-4 Shear force at critical section.
- Maximum allowable shear stress.

**Column footing design – with RCC column design pdf**

- Step-1 Load calculation.
- Step-2 Area of footing.
- Step-3 Depth of footing by one-way shear criterion.
- Shear force due to factored soil pressure at critical section.
- Depth of footing by two way shear.
- Step-4 Shear force at critical section.
- Maximum allowable shear stress.

## What is a plinth beam?

Plinth beam is **a reinforced concrete beam constructed between the wall and its foundation**. Plinth beam is provided to prevent the extension or propagation of cracks from the foundation into the wall above when the foundation suffers from settlement.