What is the effect of low vacuum in steam turbine?

The lower vacuum inside the condenser increases the pressure at the exit of the turbine. This condition is also known as Back pressure in the steam turbine. Thus it will lower the total pressure drop across the turbine and hence the steam will not get expanded up to the maximum extent.

Why vacuum is required in steam turbine?

Vacuum applies to steam turbines because the pressure of saturated vapour above available cooling water is well below 1 bar (typically 17 mbar at 15°C ambient).

What is the reason for loss of vacuum in condenser?

A common cause of poor condenser vacuum is excessive air ingress or leakage. Any fall in condenser vacuum would have consequent rise in turbine heat rate vis-à-vis plant heat rate.

Why does a vacuum drop?

The main factors for slow vacuum reduction are:

inadequate pressure of steam supply at the bearing seal. wrongly shut off the sealing gate of the water seal valve during running. the heat load at the condenser is too large. the water level of the condensed water tank is too low.

What happens if the vacuum inside the condenser increases?

When a vacuum exists in the condenser, atmospheric air will leak into the condenser shell through flanges and other leakage points raising the condenser pressure. Dissolved gas in the water used to raise the steam will also enter the condenser along with the steam, but will not condense.

How does a surface condenser work?

A surface condenser or steam condenser is a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger used to condensate the exhaust steam from the steam turbine in thermal power stations: the steam is converted from gaseous to liquid state at a pressure level below atmospheric pressure.

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How do you make a condenser vacuum?

Steam when condensed into water reduces in volume drastically at the order of thosands depending upon the pressure existing inside the condenser, e.g. around 14500 times at 0.1 bar. This enormous reduction in volume creates the vacuum inside the condenser.

How do you keep the heat level of a condenser?

1) Generally we try to maintain hot well level at 0 MM or normal level. 2) If hot well level falls below 0 mm, normal make up valve will open and allow DM water to condenser in order to maintain normal level.At Low level this normal make up valve will be fully opened.

How does a steam ejector work?

Steam ejectors use steam or gas instead of moving parts to compress a gas. In a jet or ejector, a relatively high-pressure gas, like steam or air, expands through a nozzle. The steam or air converts that pressure or potential energy to velocity or kinetic energy.

How boiler works in thermal power plant?

Boiler in thermal power plant accumulates the steam and build up a pressure to expend it in turbine and convert thermal energy to mechanical energy. The generator which is connected to turbine converts the mechanical energy into electric energy.

What is economizer in thermal power plant?

A common application of economizers in steam power plants is to capture the waste heat from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer it to the boiler feedwater. This raises the temperature of the boiler feedwater, lowering the needed energy input, in turn reducing the firing rates needed for the rated boiler output.

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How do liquid ring vacuum pumps work?

How does a liquid ring pump work? The principle is simple. An offset rotor is placed in a cylindrical housing, and fluid (typically water) is fed into this housing. As the rotor spins, the water is thrown by centrifugal force to the outside, similar to a washing machine.

What is a hotwell in a condenser?

The condenser hotwell serves as a water reservoir for the turbine cycle. When hotwell level reaches the low point, a valve opens to supply make-up water to the cycle. When hotwell level reaches the high end of the level range, a dump valve opens to move the condensate from the hotwell to a condensate storage tank.

Where is the hotwell located in heat transfer?

The hotwell is the area at the bottom of the condenser where the condensed steam is collected to be pumped back into the system feedwater.

How is vacuum created in a condenser?

Steam when condensed into water reduces in volume drastically at the order of thosands depending upon the pressure existing inside the condenser, e.g. around 14500 times at 0.1 bar. This enormous reduction in volume creates the vacuum inside the condenser.

How does a steam condenser work?

Steam Condenser Working Principle

A flow of cooling water is continuously circulating from the condenser inside a steam condenser to the cooling tower and the cooling tower to the condenser. When low-pressure exhaust steam leaves the turbine and passes through the condenser, it loses the heat and condenses into water.

How do you create steam?

Steam is the gaseous phase of water which is formed when the necessary latent heat of vaporization is supplied to water at its boiling point. Steam is created in power plants at high pressures by the burning of a fuel within a boiler.

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How does a steam superheater work?

The saturated steam (at the boiling point) is separated from water in the steam drum area and is passed through the superheater tubes. The superheater heats steam above the saturation temperature for a particular boiler pressure. Superheater tubes have steam on one side and hot combustion gases on the other.

What is evaporator in boiler?

Evaporator is a boiler component that functions to convert water into saturated steam. It is able to change the whole or part of a solvent from a solution in the form of liquid to steam. So that it only leaves a denser or thick solution. The process that occurs in the evaporator is called evaporation.

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